یک قرارداد بین یک دولت یا نهاد قانونی یا نهاد دولتی در یک طرف و یک نهاد بخش خصوصی از سوی دیگر، برای تأمین دارایی های عمومی و/یا خدمات عمومی در جهت منافع عموم مردم، از طریق سرمایه گذاری های انجام شده و/یا مدیریت توسط نهاد بخش خصوصی برای یک دوره زمانی مشخص، که در آن سهم ریسک قابل ملاحظه بر عهده بخش خصوصی گذاشته می شود و پرداخت به بخش خصوصی بر پایه عملکرد بوده و از معیارهای عملکردی مشخص، از پیش تعیین شده و قابل اندازه گیری پیروی می کند.
“An arrangement between a government or statutory entity or government owned entity on one side and a private sector entity on the other, for the provision of public assets and/ or related services for public benefit, through investments being made by and/ or management undertaken by the private sector entity for a specified time period, where there is a substantial risk sharing with the private sector and the private sector receives performance linked payments that conform (or are benchmarked) to specified, pre-determined and measurable performance standards.”
“A PPP is a modality of private investment participation that involves expertise, knowledge, equipment, technology and distribution of risks and resources, preferable private, with the purpose of creating, developing, improving, operating or maintaining public infrastructure or providing public services and/or provides services related to those required by the State, also to develop projects of applied research and/or technological innovation.”
“PPP is a contract between a public sector institution/municipality and a private party, in which the private party assumes substantial financial, technical and operational risk in the design, financing, building and operation of a project.”
“PPP is an arrangement between public sector and private sector entities whereby the private entities renovate, construct, operate, maintain, and/or manage a facility in whole or in part in accordance with output specifications. The private entity assumes the associated risks for a significant period of time and in return, receives benefits/financial remunerations according to agreed terms; which can be in the form of tariffs or user charges. PPP is therefore a cooperative venture built on the expertise of each partner that best meets clearly defined public needs through the most appropriate allocation of resources, risks and rewards.”
“A form of cooperation between government and business (in many cases also involving NGOs, trade unions, and/or knowledge institutions) in which they agree to work together to reach a common goal or carry out a specific task, jointly assuming the risks and responsibility and sharing their resources and competences.”
“PPPs are arrangements typified by joint working between the public and private sectors. In their broadest sense they can cover all types of collaboration across the private-public sector interface involving collaborative working together and risk sharing to deliver policies, services and infrastructure.” The most common type of PPP in the UK is the Private Finance Initiative (PFI), which is “an arrangement whereby the public sector contracts to purchase services, usually derived from an investment in assets, from the private sector on a long-term basis, often between 15 to 30 years.”
Standard and Poor’s (2005):
A PPP is any medium to long-term relationship between the public and private sectors, involving the sharing of risks and rewards of multisector skills, expertise and finance to deliver desired policy outcomes.
Robert Bain (2009, p. i):
A PPP is “an alternative approach to traditional public sector procurement. Under a typical PPP, the private sector designs, builds, finances, operates and maintains infrastructure (such as roads or schools) in return for performance-related payments from government agencies (‘promoters’) and/or the right to charge users for services. Importantly, the public sector passes project risk to the private sector where, in theory, it can be better managed – thus providing value-for-money”. Review of Lessons from Completed PPP Projects Financed by the EIB, Robert Bain, May 2009, European Investment Bank